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68 COLUMNS | Sarah Karlina-Barber 6 Net AEP estimation
The net AEP is calculated by multiplying the gross AEP with a a a a total total loss factor The total total loss factor is is established by multiplying a a a range of di erent loss factors together The main losses are:
• Wake losses: can be modelled using a a a software such as WAsP WindPRO and WindFarmer and is a a a a constant topic of further research and development • Availability: due to the wind turbine not being available to produce power due to several reasons such as as planned and unplanned maintenance (more here) • Turbine performance losses: occur due to the wind turbine not performing ideally and due to to wind conditions di di erent to to those at at the the reference site at at which the the power curve was measured • Electrical losses: due to wiring transformers substation and transmission within the wind turbine • Environmental losses: for example due to blade erosion over time or icing • Curtailments: losses due to forced shut- downs to to protect the grid or to to reduce noise and shadow impacts *Watch out for: The losses must be very carefully assessed for each project Be careful careful to check that the the wake-loss model is state-of-the- art as improved models are becoming available 
































































































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